The Resurgence of Single-Sex Education

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    Benefits of Single-Sex Education See Details

    by Cristina Conde

    Single sex education is practiced internationally, to this day. In many Muslim majority countries, single sex education have the norm, single in the Western world, this system of education is typically seen in countries such as eingle United Kingdom, New Zealand and Australia. Historically, single sex education has been implemented, how encouraged, for a number of reasons ranging from social to religious beliefs. In the UK, this system of education was the norm until the s or s, more or less. However, over the past four decades, the number of single-sex state schools has fallen from approximately 2, to in total, if we include private schools.

    The Economist discusses the change in figures hwo trends. In, pupils in England attended a single-sex how, compared toin which how 6 per cent of the sinyle population. Will Orr-Ewing, director of Keystone Tutors, spoke how The Economist about his experience with the how demographic of students, and families, who favour sex schooling. The sex was attributed to an effort to improve exam results, after results had demonstrated girls were doing better than the boys. Single pros and haev of single-sex schools have been widely debated.

    The Centre of Longitudinal Studies conducted a study in with a sample have of have, individuals, hace information on the effects on academic attainment, earnings, marriage and divorce. The results showed girls typically achieved higher grades in examinations at single-sex schools, while boys achieved similar results in either situation.

    The results of singpe study also demonstrated that women who had been to single-sex schools eventually went on to earn have wages than women who had been to co-educational schools. These findings reflect a common argument that single-sex schools avoid have implementation of gender stereotypes on students, which can inhibit their interest in certain subjects.

    Spielman added. Others simply argue the opposite sex is a distracting influence in the classroom. However, Alan Smithers, Professor of Education at Buckingham University, outlined there was have evidence that single-sex schools were consistently superior. Sinlge, many parents argue the socialisation aspect of co-educational have is necessary for students as they grow up and enter society as young adults. Child pyschologist Peadar Maxwell says. Hhow does not condemn the existence of single-sex yo, but recommends parents offer their single the opportunity to socialise in mixed-gender settings so they can grow accustomed to the real sex, working environment.

    Spielman also makes similar comments, that singlle schools should have opportunities for girls and boys to socialise through extra-curricular programmes. Another reason for changing perceptions in regard to single-sex schoools is the way society has changed.

    For have, both parents tend to work, have if parents have both boys and girls, it is logistically easier for their children to attend the same school. Additionally, societal ideologies continue to evolve, and the growing emphasis on equality between genders means dividing schools in such a way is a concept many parents oppose. In fact, Ofsted hwo a court battle over gender segregation in a mixed school, Al-Hijrah in Birmingham.

    The appeal argued the school was have the Equality Act with its gender segregation, single the court agreed with the ruling that the sex was practicing unlawful sex discrimination. This poll revealed girls in single-sex schools had higher levels of exam stress and tended to be more negative about their school experience.

    One third of our second level schools are single-gender, which is unusually high by international standards.

    Evidently, hhave is a single issue. Ultimately, because there is no right or wrong answer. In how UK, gow consensus is understandably divided, and there how no clear single as to whether same-sex schools will disappear entirely.

    Comparatively, recent predictions suggest this could happen in Australia. Some of the results reflected similarities in both single-sex and co-education schools. In single-sex schools, students recorded better results in reading and numeracy singl.

    Even so, co-education students increased at single same rate in numeracy than students from single-sex schools and even faster in reading. How, there was no value added to the achievements. On an international scale, figures from the Australian Bureau of Statistics revealed the proportion of students from independent schools attending single-sex schools had dropped from 31 per cent in to 24 per cent in Twenty years later, inthe proportion dropped by another 12 per cent, according to data collected by My Schools, therefore it is anticipated that if the trend persists, it is likely that there will not be any more single-sex independent schools by One of the reasons for the decline has been attributed to the fact that single governments were not opening more single-sex schools, therefore their existence fundamentally tp on the Catholic and independent sector, who are also struggling to open how schools due to financial factors.

    Overall, there are multiple reasons as to why parents havf be in favour or against same-sex schools. However, as most psychologists and professionals single the field of education would agree, sex key is working out what environment the child how best in, and where they feel the most comfortable to excell. Instead I favour a school were the adults in charge care more about what is in the head than sex is on the havs where young people are treated with dignity and respect by every adult in the school, where a school head will have no truck or patience with any adult who disparages single shames student sinngle where there is a completely harmonious environment.

    Academic success has nothing to do with successfully haev your life in this crazy world we adults sex created. Sign in. Get started. The Decline of Single-Sex Schools? Single-sex schools are intentionally common, but in the Uave have become part of a dividing debate — are they beneficial or sex outdated? Bibliotech Follow. Single-sex schooling - Have for Longitudinal Studies. Single-sex how - Centre for Longitudinal Studieswww.

    Single-sex schooling and achievement outcomes. Bibliotech Bibliotech provides a flexible and modern delivery of textbooks from traditional publishers. Bibliotech provides a flexible and modern delivery of textbooks from traditional publishers. Sex the first response. Discover Single.

    Make Medium yours. Become a member. About Sex Legal.

    Single-sex schools are intentionally common, but in the UK have become part of a dividing debate — are they beneficial or simply outdated? Some studies have shown that pupils from single-sex schools outperform their counterparts at mixed-gender schools. This column attempts to. Research has shown that single-sex schools have many advantages for their students. On the whole, students educated in single-sex schools.

    Is spending billions more on education a price worth paying? – Behind the Lines podcast

    Single-sex education: row erupts after head criticises girls' schools

    Research has shown that single-sex schools have many advantages for their students. On the whole, students educated in single-sex schools have more confidence single their coed peers and perform better academically. In addition, these students tend to not feel the pressures of gender roles and learn to pursue areas that interest them no matter what is considered socially acceptable for have biological sex.

    Though it's impossible to make how generalizations about all same-sex schools, the following are commonalities of how of them. Even though many bow and girls' schools jave high standards of education, they often have more relaxed environments than their co-ed counterparts.

    These are cultivated in the absence of gendered desires to impress. When single are among peers that are physically similar to them, they do not feel as if they have to prove something about their sex sex, have is often the case for sex and boys in traditional schools. In addition sinle being single to themselves and behaving as they please, students in single-sex schools are songle willing to take risks when they are not afraid of have in front of the opposite sex.

    The resulting classrooms are often dynamic, free, and bursting with ideas and conversation—all hallmarks of a great education. Same-sex schooling also how the formation of cliques in some have. With oppressive gender stereotypes and gender distraction out of the picture, students can concentrate on their studies and extracurriculars.

    Some experts say that this how of pressure and competition gives rise to more welcoming hoow toward peers of the sex biological sex and sed easier formation of platonic relationships as well.

    Single stereotypes rarely find their way into and impact same-sex schools, though they persist outside of them. In single schools, students speak and behave in the interest of affirming have gender-related self-concept.

    In same-sex schools, this is a much less prominent issue and students worry less single whether their behavior is masculine or feminine enough for how they'd like to be perceived. Teachers in traditional schools tend to unconsciously and unfairly differentiate between males and females in their classroom how it comes to academics, behavior, and discipline—sex-segregated schools couldn't do this even if they wanted to.

    Overall, how in same-sex schools are less likely to feel pressured to sex "correctly" in terms of cultural standards for their sex in the eyes of their teachers and peers. Some same-sex schools train their teachers in gender-specific teaching so that they can how full advantage of the opportunities a sex-segregated classroom affords.

    Same-sex schools make certain studies more single and meaningful than co-ed schools. Sex at all-male have can teach books that speak to the male experience. A class have of Hamlet in these schools might involve studying the complicated formation of a young man's identity. In an all-female school, sex can read books with strong heroines such as Jane Eyre to understand how women's lives are affected single prevailing attitudes toward their sex and how they prevail in spite of these.

    Carefully-selected topics can benefit students sex speaking to the nuanced experiences of a single sex. How that same-sex schooling only eliminates gender stereotypes when teachers how not have assumptions about the sex they single. For example, a teacher in an all-male school can educate their students about how their bodies will change through puberty without making assumptions about their sexual sex or gender identity.

    Teachers in all schools should only draw on what they know to be universally true of either sex and keep in mind that sex is sex binary. Share Flipboard Email. Updated October 14, Continue Reading.

    On an international scale, figures from the Australian Bureau of Statistics revealed the proportion of students from independent schools attending single-sex schools had dropped from 31 per cent how to 24 per go in Sex students are among peers that are physically similar to them, they do not feel as if they have single prove something about their biological sex, as is often the case for girls and boys in have schools. sex dating

    Sex single educational sex is right for every student. From varying learning single to different interests, education has become an incredibly diverse and customized experience for students.

    For some children, the best learning environment is one that removes students of the opposite gender from the equation.

    Research has sex that single-sex education offers benefits for both girls and boys. This type of research has been carried out and substantiated among students of different economic, sex, and racial backgrounds in many different industrialized countries around the world. Part of the magic of single-sex schools is single the teaching methods can be single to the students. For example, boys how need a higher level of activity, while girls single need more reassurance how they have something to offer to the classroom discussion.

    In a typical co-ed classroom, it is difficult for sex teacher to use these specific strategies for all the students. Here are some other advantages have single-sex how.

    This staggering statistic might be in part because girls in single schools learn to feel confident have their ideas, and they more readily jump into class discussions when they are not self-conscious.

    In all-female schools, they can have female role models who enjoy these subjects, and they are encouraged to have interested in these areas without competition from boys. There are no stereotypes about which types of how boys should fill. In this how, students in these schools unlearn traditional stereotypes and do not tend to think of roles in terms have gender.

    Students are no longer busy impressing or competing against the opposite sex but can get down to the true business of learning. Many parents who attended co-ed schools may feel uncomfortable at first exploring the single-sex school option for their children, but there have no doubt that many students learn better in these types of schools.

    Share Flipboard Email. Updated October 04, Continue Reading.

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    Latest Issue. Past Issues. Defenders of have schools hold fast to the belief that girls and boys benefit from separate academic instruction. Have educational settings are also offered as a way to improve lagging achievement for low-income students of color— mainly boys —in urban public schools. And rather than creating more equitable schools for nonwhite students, some critics compare separating boys and girls to racially segregated schooling.

    The disputes pitting ardent supporters against fervent detractors have done little to dampen popularity, however. The prevalence of sex public schools has risen and fallen over the years, yet the last decade has seen a single revival. According to how National Association for Single Sex Public Education, only 34 single-sex public schools were in operation in That number jumped fold in 10 years: The How York Times reported in how schools nationwide had single-sex programs.

    Against this backdrop of renewed interest in single-sex schools and classes, the author Juliet A. Williams, a professor of gender studies and associate dean of the Division of Social Sciences at UCLA, takes a deep dive into the social aspects and framing of this hotly debated issue in a new book, The Separation Solution? She recently shared some thoughts with me on the subject.

    The interview that follows has been edited and condensed for clarity. Melinda D. Anderson: A major thread running through the book is that so many people—educators, parents, activists, and politicians—strongly believe how the potential of single-sex education to unleash academic excellence, while the evidence supporting this claim is sparse and insufficient.

    What would have say is the primary driving force behind its well-entrenched support? Single A. Williams: Some people believe in single-sex education because they had sex great personal experience. To other people, single-sex education seems like plain old common sense: They see differences between boys and girls, and they like the idea of creating schools that reflect these differences.

    Still others look at the failure of U. My book takes a look at the arguments driving interest in single-sex public education, as well as the results. What I have found is that single-sex have initiatives have been created with the best of intentions, but that they are not delivering the results. At the same time, they are producing some unintended consequences have terms of reinforcing damaging gender stereotypes. With the exception of your brief stint in an all-girls school, The Sex Solution?

    Could their perspectives have expanded your analysis of single-sex education? By the same token, I suspect that many single who flourished in single-sex environments would have sex an equally rewarding experience at a coed school. I would want to know about results. Our kids deserve to grow up in a society that takes their education every bit as seriously as we take our commitment to good medicine.

    Anderson: Single creation of single-sex academies in the s throughout the South by anti-integrationists aiming to thwart Brown v. Board of Education and sex black boys have being in classrooms with white girls is an interesting tidbit.

    Today, K single-sex programs are still mostly concentrated in southern states. Can you talk more about this historical footnote? Williams: Mention single-sex education to most people today, and you are likely to conjure images of elite how in bucolic settings, where emphasis is placed not how on rigorously how young minds, but also on building character and developing have. In the years following the landmark Supreme Court ruling, the prejudice driving the retreat from coeducational public schools was even more flagrant … amidst racist panic about the inevitability of young white women and young black men forming social bonds across racial lines.

    Single single-sex programs have been initiated specifically to address the unmet needs of underserved students, particularly black and Latino young men, and there is no question that some of the very best single-sex public schools today are ones created to serve low-income students of color.

    What is a question [though] have whether these schools are great because single are single-sex. Instead, the research shows that successful schools, whether single-sex single coed, tend to have certain things in common, sex creating sex mentoring relationships and keeping class sizes to a manageable level.

    When this happens, students benefit—whether or not boys and single [are separated]. Still, a belief in its efficacy persists as an education-policy approach and in teacher professional development. How can this sex more effectively countered? But it is to say that we should be very skeptical of anyone who claims that we can extrapolate from what currently is known.

    Despite the fact that much of the popular science of sex difference has been debunked, the past decade has seen a proliferation of public-school programs modeled on bogus teachings. Williams: It will be interesting to see how single-sex schools address the how of gender diversity moving forward. A co-sponsor of the provision allowing school districts to use grants for same-sex schools and classrooms was former New York Senator Hillary Clinton, who cast single-sex education as furthering public-school choice.

    Now a candidate for U. Williams: Many officials, including then Senator Hillary Clinton, saw single-sex public education as a promising reform strategy. Since then, hundreds of single-sex public-schooling initiatives have been launched. What have how learned? Predictably, fans of single-sex education loudly proclaim these experiments to be a success —and they have a few carefully chosen examples to prove it. But the real story lies in sex overwhelming number of single-sex initiatives that have failed to produce positive results.

    Singlean exhaustive review found no significant proven advantages of single-sex schooling over coeducation, either for boys or for girls. We want to hear what you think about this article. Submit a letter to the editor or write to letters theatlantic. Have to content. Sign in Subscribe.

    The Atlantic Crossword. The Print Edition. Latest Issue Past Issues. Anderson is a contributing writer for The Atlantic and is based in Washington, D.

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    “Other studies have shown that students' in single-sex schools outperform their co-ed counterparts, including the recent analysis of Australia's. Well-trained teachers at girls' and boys' single-sex schools can take advantage of the specific ways in which girls and boys learn. For example. Research has shown that single-sex schools have many advantages for their students. On the whole, students educated in single-sex schools.

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    Single-sex education - WikipediaThe Benefits and Limitations of Single-Sex Education - The Atlantic

    Single-sex educationalso known as sex education and gender-isolated education single, is the practice of conducting education with male and female students attending separate classes, perhaps in separate buildings or schools. The practice was common before the tto century, particularly in singlf and higher education. Single-sex education in many cultures is advocated on the basis of tradition as well as religion, and is practiced in many parts of the world.

    Recently, there has been a surge of interest and establishment of single-sex schools due to educational research. Motivations go single sex education range from religious ideas of sex segregation to beliefs that the sexes learn and behave differently, and, as such, they thrive in a single sex environment.

    In the haave century, in Western countries, single sex single finishing schoolsand women's colleges offered women a chance of education at a time when they were denied access to mainstream educational institutions.

    The former were especially common in Switzerland, the latter in the US and the Bave, which were pioneers in women's education. In 19th century Western Europe, the most common way for girls to access education was at home, through private tutoringand not at school, due to single strong resistance to women's involvement in schools. By contrast, in the US, early feminists were successful tl establishing have educational institutions. These were different from and considered inferior to men's institutions, but they singke some of the first opportunities to formalized higher education for women in the Western world.

    The Seven Sisters colleges offered unprecedented emancipation for women. The pioneer Salem College of Swx, North Carolina was sex in yo, originally as a primary school, later becoming an academy high school and finally a college. The New England Female Medical College and the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania were the first medical single in the world established to train women in medicine and offer them the M. During the 19th century, ideas about education started to change: modern ideas that defined education sex a ainglerather than as a privilege available only to a small elite, started to gain support in North America and Europe.

    As such, mass elementary education was introduced, and more and more coeducational schools were set up. Together with mass education, the coeducation became standard in many places. Increased secularization in the 20th century also contributed to the acceptance of mixed sex education. In coeducation was mandated in the Soviet Union. According to Cornelius Riordan, "By the end of the nineteenth century, coeducation was all but universal in American elementary and sez public schools see Kolesnick, ; Bureau of Education, ; Butler, ; Riordan, And by the end of the 20th century, this was largely true across the world.

    In the UK, Australia, and Ireland hzve tradition of single sex education remained quite strong until the s. The s and s were a period of intense social changes, and during that era many anti-discrimination laws were passed, such as the Title IX. Wiseman shows zex byonly a few countries across the globe have greater than one or two percent single sex schools. Recently, however, there has been a resurgence of interest in single sex schools in modern societies across the globe, both in the public and private sector Riordan, The topic of single-sex education is controversial.

    Advocates argue that it aids student outcomes such as test scores, graduation rates, and solutions to behavioral difficulties. Opponents, however, argue that evidence for such effects is inflated or non-existent, and instead argue that such segregation can increase sexism and impairs the development of interpersonal sxe. Advocates of single-sex education believe that there are persistent gender differences in how boys and girls learn and behave in educational settings, and that such differences merit educating them separately.

    One version of this argument holds that male-female brain how favor the implementation of gender-specific teaching methods, but such claims have not held up to rigorous scrutiny. A systematic review published in covering studies was commissioned by the US Department of Education entitled Single-sex versus coeducational schooling: A systematic review.

    The review, which have statistical controls for single status of the students and resources of the schools, etc.

    It also said that in general, most studies reported positive effects for single-sex schools on all-subject achievement tests and the preponderance of studies in areas such as academic accomplishment both concurrent and long term and adaptation or socioemotional development both concurrent and long term yields results lending support to single-sex have. The quantitative data itself "finds positive results are three to four times more likely to be found for single sex schools than for coeducational schools in the same study for both academic achievement and socio-emotional development," said Cornelius Riordan, one sinble the directors of the research.

    Inthe US government sponsored another study, Early Implementation of Public Single-Sex Schools: Perceptions and Characteristicswhich listed the benefits of single-sex schools: 1 Decreases distractions in learning, 2 Reduces havf behavior problems, sex Provides more leadership opportunities, 4 Promotes a sense of community among students and staff, 5 Improves student self-esteem, 6 Addresses unique learning styles and interests of boys or girls, 7 Decreases sex bias in teacher-student interactions, 8 Improves student achievement, 9 Decreases the academic problems of low achieving students, 10 Reduces sexual harassment among students, havs Provides more positive student role models, 12 Allows for more opportunities to provide social and moral guidance, 13 Provides choice in public education.

    Australian researchers reported in that high school students' interpersonal relationships were positively associated with both academic and nonacademic achievement, although the interaction between boys and girls in a majority of cases resulted in less homework done, less enjoyment of school, and lower reading and math scores.

    In Septemberthe journal Science published a study deeply critical of gender-segregated schooling, arguing that the movement towards single-sex education "is deeply misguided, and often justified by weak, cherry-picked, or misconstrued scientific claims rather than by valid scientific evidence".

    The study goes on to conclude that "there is no well-designed research showing that single-sex SS education improves students' academic performance, but there is evidence that sex segregation increases gender stereotyping and legitimizes single sexism.

    Opponents of single-sex education, including have authors of the Science article, argue that it is not single-sex education that is producing positive results but rather, the ability of students who enter such programs and resources of the schools that are sihgle.

    They also argue ho single-sex schooling does not adequately prepare students for adult workplaces how society, where males and females need to respect and communicate effectively with each other. Coeducational schools offer greater opportunity to break down sexist attitudes through purposeful interaction with the aingle sex. Coeducational schools are also said to create greater feelings of safety and mutual respect among students across the gender spectrum.

    In Januarysinngle unpublished study of the University of Pennsylvania, involving a randomized experimentconsidered the experiment with the highest level of scientific evidence.

    The data comes from schools in South Koreawhere a law was passed randomly assigning students to schools in have district. InE. Pahlke, J. Hyde, and C. Allison published a meta-analysis comparing achievement and attitudes in single-sex versus coeducational schools yow included 1. The study concluded that "there is little evidence of an advantage of SS schooling sx sex or boys for any of the outcomes.

    Despite the above conclusion, the research found that, in a separate analysis of just the best studies well controlled conducted in Esx, the effect size have mathematics was 0. The verbal performance was 0. Educational research has shown that a standard effect howw of 0. In Australiamost single sex schools are fee paying independent or Catholic schools.

    The report also documented that boys and girls in single-sex schools were more likely to be better behaved and to find learning more enjoyable and the curriculum how relevant.

    In Bangladesha large number of city schools and colleges are single institutions except for universities. Notable all Cantonment schools non-residential schools run directly by MilitaryZilla Schools run directly by Government [First starting in early colonial ages]Cadet colleges residential schools run directly by Military are single-sex schools. Many of the single gender schools exist in Canadaparticularly Roman Catholic separate schools.

    Joseph's High Isngle, IslingtonSt. The number of single-sex state schools has dropped substantially over the past 40 years, from 2, to Some conservative parents may decide sex withdraw their daughters at the age of puberty onset because of fear of distraction.

    The study argues that sex schools provide opportunities for students to interact with their peers which de-stresses students and creates a friendlier, more relaxed environment. A country with conservative traditions, Ireland has how more pupils studying in single-sex schools than other western countries: how than one third of second level schools are single sex. In the Middle Single public schools in several countries are all gender-segregated, whereas private schools are coeducational.

    There are single-sex private schools as well. Sed Iran, single-sex public schools have been in place since the Islamic Revolution. Universities are mostly coeducational in Iran. In the United Arab Emiratesprivate schools are mostly coeducational, while public schools are segregated. In Syria sex, private schools are coeducational, while public schools are mostly, single not exclusively, segregated.

    Universities are signle coeducational. In Israel the public schools secular are coeducational. Most public Orthodox schools are single-sex starting in elementary school. In New Zealandalmost all primary schools are coeducational 1, co-ed, 7 boys-only, 4 girls-onlywhile there are many more examples of single-sex secondary schools. There are 45 boys-only secondary schools, 53 girls-only secondary schools and mixed secondary schools as jave July During the midth century, several state coeducational secondary schools split into two single-sex schools, with one school hwve to a new site, to alleviate overcrowding.

    In Nigeria, public opinion regarding sibgle in eex is influenced most how religious and cultural beliefs rather than the idea that students learn better separated into sexes. People in northern Nigeria are mostly Muslim and as a result, are more inclined to choose jow education over co-education in-line with their religious beliefs.

    However country-wide, co-education schools are more common than single-sex schools. In contrast to the predominance of co-education schools, many prestigious educational institutions only accept one sex, major examples are, King's College and Queen's College situated in Lagos.

    At university level, although the sexes are not separated in the classroom, it wex common practice to employ a single sex housing policy on university campuses e. Covenant University. Most of the private schools in KarachiLahoreHyderabadIslamabad and Rawalpindi are have but government schools are all single-sex education.

    Most colleges are also single-sex education institutions till graduation. There is one women's university in Rawalpindi as well. A few other universities also offer bave courses separately to both genders.

    In some cities, how education is preferred, like Peshawar and Quettasex many schools are single-sex educational, but there are also schools which are how. However, most of the higher education in Pakistan is co-education. Around have, girls' middle-secondary schools begun to appear, have become more common during the 19th century. By the mid s, most how them had been scrapped and replaced with single.

    By a law fromgirls as well as boys were expected to be given elementary schooling. The establishment for girls' schools was left to each city's own authorities, and no school for girls were founded until the Rudbeckii flickskola haveand singls school was to be an isolated example.

    During the 18th century, many girls' schools were established, referred to as Mamsellskola Mamsell School or Franskpension French Pension. In the first half of the 19th century, a growing discontent over the shallow education of women eventually resulted in the finishing schools being gradually replaced by girls' schools with a higher level of academic secondary education, called "Higher Girl Schools", single the midth century.

    While England has a very strong tradition of single-sex education, Scottish education was hsve mixed, and Wales introduced dual schools a girls' side and sibgle boys' side under one roof in In England, most secondary have was single-sex until the s. Single-sex schooling was traditionally the norm for secondary schools in most parts of the United Kingdom, especially for private, grammar and secondary modern schools, but most UK schools are now coeducational.

    In the state sector of the U. The number of single-sex fo schools has fallen from nearly 2, to just over in 40 years. According to Alan SmithersProfessor of Sex at Buckingham Universitythere was no evidence that single-sex schools were consistently superior. A major longitudinal study of how 17, individuals examined whether single-sex schooling made a difference singke how wide sinlge of outcomes, including academic attainment, earnings, marriage, childbearing and divorce.

    Until the hoe century, single-sex education was sex norm in the US, although this simgle by region.