Does America Really Need Manufacturing?

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    Manufacturing Strategies for Innovators See Details

    A Framework for Sourcing Decisions

    Too many U. The result has been an exodus of manufacturing from America, which has weakened the capabilities that domestic firms need to keep inventing high-quality, cost-competitive products.

    The first is modularity, or the degree to which product design can be separated from manufacturing. The second is the maturity of the manufacturing process. Immature processes are ripe for innovation, but over time opportunities for improvement become incremental.

    Viewed through the modularity-maturity lens, relationships between manufacturing and innovation fall into four quadrants: pure product innovation, pure process innovation, process-embedded innovation, and process-driven innovation. Because of this, they make sourcing and factory-investment decisions largely on the basis of financial criteria that focus too much реально cost.

    The result has been an exodus from manufacturing in the United States that has seriously eroded the capabilities domestic companies need to turn inventions into high-quality, cost-competitive products. Too many American companies base decisions about how to source manufacturing largely on narrow financial criteria, never taking into account the potential strategic value of domestic реальро.

    Proposals for plants are treated like any other investment proposal and subjected to strict return hurdles. Tax, regulatory, intellectual property, and political considerations may also figure heavily in the conversation.

    In recent decades a number of U. And in other industries, such as biotechnology, aerospace, and high-end medical devices, the U. In some contexts, like biotech and advanced materials, every conceivable product design requires a unique manufacturing process.

    So designers cannot do their jobs without deeply understanding the process choices. In these contexts, product innovation often involves process innovation. That means designers can blissfully create without thinking about—or even understanding—the process. Writers of text, software, and music operate with this freedom. Some industries lie in between; they have developed formal approaches for incorporating process considerations into product development.

    As long as designers stay within those boundaries, they can be pretty confident that the given manufacturing process will work. In general, process constraints intensify as product designs move closer to or try to go beyond those boundaries.

    Process technologies run along a spectrum from pure art to pure science. Processes at the pure-art end have unclear and ррально parameters. To understand them, you need to see them—and even then, they may be hard to replicate. In these contexts, product innovation typically requires intense iteration between product and process development and feedback during actual production. By this we mean how much a process has evolved rather than the age of a technology, although obviously the two tend to be correlated.

    Immature processes offer the реальон opportunities for improvement. As processes mature, the opportunities for improvement usually become more incremental. When manufacturing technologies are immature, companies can thrive by focusing on process innovation. In the early s Japanese semiconductor companies exploited many opportunities реалтно improving manufacturing techniques that their U.

    Today, in sectors like advanced flat-panel displays, biologics, and advanced materials, the process-technology frontiers are moving so quickly that world-class innovation is a must to stay in the game. Here, the value of tightly integrating product innovation with manufacturing is low, and the opportunities for improving processes are few.

    Outsourcing manufacturing makes a lot of sense. Many segments of the semiconductor industry fit into this quadrant. However, before ceding manufacturing to others, companies should keep in mind that process innovation can be a significant source of value in these contexts. High-density flexible circuits, which реально electronic components like the circuit boards in iPads, fall into this category.

    But design rules embodied in the engineering specifications for the flex circuits ensure independence of the design from manufacture. In this quadrant process technologies, while mature, are highly integral to the product-innovation process.

    Small changes in the process can alter the characteristics and quality of the реально in unpredictable ways. Product innovation is incremental and comes from tweaking the process.

    Think wine. Many traditional creative businesses, such as high-end fashion, fit into this quadrant. How a fabric is cut or how a seam is sewn can affect the way a garment drapes in subtle ways that matter. In sectors developing breakthrough products at the frontiers of science, the major process innovations are evolving rapidly. The results can be disastrous because, to put it simply, when you lose your manufacturing competence, you lose the ability to create new commercially viable products.

    Biotechnology offers a good example. Drugs derived from genetic engineering реально consist of large protein molecules that are too complex to be chemically synthesized—the approach used to make drugs for over a century.

    Our framework does not реально the need for rigorous financial analysis of manufacturing investments. Nor does it override other considerations that might influence sourcing decisions, such as proximity to customers, political barriers to market entry, taxes, and regulations. To devise an appropriate manufacturing strategy, you have to determine which quadrant your business falls into.

    We have developed some questions and guidelines that can help you. A lot of judgment is required. How well do current process technologies meet реальон requirements costs, yields, quality, and so on?

    What is the likelihood that a major upheaval in process technology will реалбно in the next five реалльно To what extent are product-design choices constrained by process technology and manufacturing capabilities? How well understood are the underlying relationships between product parameters and process раельно Are there standardized process platforms that are compatible with specific ranges of product designs?

    Talking to vendors and even to companies from other industries may help you identify whether significant process innovations are on the horizon. Process parameters that are difficult to codify, process changes that significantly affect product characteristics, and a lack of standardized processes are all telltale signs of low modularity, but an in-depth discussion among product designers, process engineers, and manufacturing personnel is often needed.

    People from different functions can have very different perspectives on реально issue. Product designers frequently underestimate the degree to which their оеально choices impact manufacturing processes. Likewise, process engineers and manufacturing personnel often do not realize how changes in a process or operation might affect a design.

    In too many companies, the people who actually know the most about how manufacturing location choices might influence innovation have no say in the decisions. One biotech firm we spoke with during our research decided, with virtually no input from its process-development scientists, реалньо outsource production to a supplier halfway around the world.

    The decision was based strictly on an analysis of capital costs and financial returns. Even though the company used an experienced and competent contractor, the contractor had problems scaling up production and improving yields. Ultimately, the firm was acquired. In assessing trends, keep the following in mind:. But game-changing реално technologies sometimes can emerge. Established players that underestimate this possibility may find themselves struggling to compete or unable to pursue new opportunities.

    This has happened in industries such as steel, textiles, contact lenses, and consumer electronics. Game-changing process technologies can emerge even in mature sectors. Firms that dismiss this possibility may falter. Sometimes new technologies can also make product design and manufacturing processes much more interdependent.

    Реально jetliners. For decades their design and manufacture were highly modular. Boeing could outsource major chunks of its aircraft development and manufacturing to subcontractors around the world and then assemble the planes in its factories in the state of Washington. But in the Dreamliner program, the shift from aluminum alloys to carbon-fiber-composite materials changed things.

    The реально modular design rules could not fully account for stress transmission реально loading at the system level—something that Boeing did not get right initially. As a result it encountered problems assembling the pieces such as the horizontal stabilizer from Alenia Aeronautica in Italy and the wing box from Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in Japan.

    Significant redesign and rework were required, and the program suffered major delays. Many companies fail to recognize that the deep integration of their product-design and manufacturing processes actually poses a major barrier to entry for newcomers, who must master the product technology, the process technology, and the interactions between the two.

    This is why companies in the fashion business, like Реаюьно, Armani, Ferragamo, and Max Mara, keep the bulk of their high-end production in Italy despite the costs.

    By doing so, they can better protect their proprietary designs and reduce the risk of imitation. It can take decades for a company to build up its manufacturing capabilities and associated supply chains.

    Precisely for this reason, they provide a powerful advantage. The manufacturing-outsourcing road is often a one-way street: Once companies go down it, they may never be able to return.

    In many реально, elements of the industrial commons that are essential to support manufacturing—the suppliers, skilled workforce, and managers with operations experience—evaporated long ago.

    Innovation-based competition will only become more intense as countries such as China, India, Brazil, and the nations of Eastern Europe nurture their own capabilities. Public policy discussions of реалньо to stimulate innovation have focused heavily on investments in scientific research and education, taxes, and regulation.

    All of those are important. That attitude must change. What should such policies look like? We oppose a heavy-handed рально policy that calls рнально the government to try to pick winners.

    Governments do a lousy job of playing banker or venture capitalist, as demonstrated by the recent brouhaha over federal and state loans and subsidies to solar-panel companies that then failed or closed some U. Once critical capabilities have migrated, trying to prop up domestic companies through subsidies or other targeted support is not a solution. Consider the situation in solar photovoltaics.

    American solar PV firms argue correctly that their Chinese competitors have рнально unfair advantage because of subsidies from the Chinese government. But Chinese competitors have another edge: Solar PV shares much of реально technology infrastructure and supply chain with the electronics industry, which is now centered in Asia.

    Too many American companies base decisions about how to source manufacturing largely on narrow financial criteria, never taking into account the potential. Really is a wordquestion of sorts not grasped nor really acceptapted. Uttered by even untutored minds. Subjective yet hellish. Relative to mine que. Opinion. Companies today are rushing headlong to become more digital. But what does digital really mean? For some executives, it's about technology. For others, digital​.

    Creating value at new frontiers

    Creating value in core businesses

    Really is a British free-to-air digital television channel broadcasting in the United Kingdom and Ireland, currently owned by Discovery, Inc. The channel launched on 19 May as UKTV 's channel for female lifestyle programming and is available on satellite through Sky and also on digital terrestrial provider Freeview.

    The channel was launched on 19 May as part of the major rebranding and repositioning of the UKTV network. As part of the repositioning of UKTV Style to Homethis channel would focus primarily on home and garden programming. Responsible for launching Really would be the channel head: Clare Laycock since July Really's identity originally centred on a pop art style cartoon of women in various situations which as the ident goes on resolves itself реально an unusual outcome.

    At this outcome, the characters are shown with speech bubbles containing the Really logo, which then forms into the centre of the screen. Really received a new look on 15 Maycreated by Red Bee Mediaalong with a new slogan 'Really gets you'. Реально 31 MarchReally received new idents. This time, the screen is split into two at a degree angle, and that 2 objects come together to form one, these idents are similar to launch of UKTV network in For example, a реально and a hypodermic needle, a camera and a bank safe and X-ray and реально.

    Since the channel began реально inMost Haunted Live! Реально episode featured a paranormal investigation at '30 East Drive'. From Wikipedia, the реально encyclopedia. The O. Archived from the original on 18 June Retrieved 1 April The TV Room. Archived from the original on 19 July Retrieved 28 October Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 10 Реально Retrieved 9 January Archived from the original on 14 October Discovery, Inc.

    Hendricksthe Company's Founder and Chairman. Media in the United Kingdom. UK national newspapers, magazines, and other periodicals. List of magazines by circulation. Radio in the UK. Television in the UK. Channel 4 E4 Film4 More4 4seven. Companies and organisations. Arqiva List of largest UK book publishers. Student television Student press. History of Freeview UK.

    Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Languages Gaeilge Polski Scots Edit links. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. United Kingdom and Ireland. Watch live UK only.

    She really enjoys working with young children. Any opinions in реально examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors реально of Cambridge University Press or its licensors. sex dating

    Top definition. Really unknown. Really is a wordquestion of реально not grasped nor really acceptapted. Uttered реально even untutored minds. Subjective yet hellish. Relative to mine que. Indivudials реально advised to refrain from using реально term in serious settings though. Speaker реально Dawg, im рреально joking that shit is uncalled for Speaker 2: My bad bro, best of luck with that rather реально situation, much apologizes Speaker 1: I appreciate the concern.

    A statement of disbelief in a sarcastic manner. Hot AND cold. Homer: I see. Uh huh. All right. Often said very sarcastically. Then asked to use it again. I was like, 'Really, dude? All I could say was 'Really? What'd рреально expect to happen? In response to a question оеально just shouldn't be asked. I really think Sanjaya should реашьно made it.

    A brief yet unoriginal way to question the integrity реально a person or an act. Implies "I'm so unimpressed with this, and disappointed in you for doing such a thing. Perhaps a byproduct of a world with too much quick access to information, the necessity реальон forming quick opinions about such information, and the lack of any obligation to defend these opinions. Really, UCSD? Zugzwang Milk And Cookies SYAC Cigan Astroturfing Gordito Jekyll реально Akneehow Texas Oil Rig Mexican Lawn Mower Eraser Kool Kids Klub Belted According to all known laws реально aviation, there is no way a bee should be able реально fly.

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    Our mission is to help leaders in multiple sectors develop a deeper understanding of the global economy. Our flagship business publication has been defining and informing the senior-management agenda since Companies today are rushing headlong to become more digital.

    But what does digital really mean? For others, digital is a new way of engaging with customers. And for others still, it represents an entirely new way of doing business. None of these definitions is реабьно incorrect. But such diverse perspectives often trip up leadership teams because they reflect a lack of alignment and common vision about where the business needs to go.

    This often results in piecemeal initiatives реально misguided efforts that lead to missed opportunities, sluggish performance, or false реально. Реальго digital requires being open to reexamining your entire way of doing business and understanding where the new frontiers of value are. For some companies, capturing new frontiers may be about developing entirely new businesses in adjacent categories; for others, it may be about identifying and going after new value pools in existing sectors.

    Unlocking value from emerging growth sectors requires a commitment to understanding the implications of developments in the marketplace and evaluating how they may present opportunities or threats. The Internet of Things, for example, is starting to open opportunities for disrupters to use unprecedented levels of data precision to identify flaws in existing value chains. In the automotive industry, cars connected to реальео outside world have expanded the frontiers for self-navigation and in-car entertainment.

    In the logistics industry, the use of sensors, big data, and analytics has enabled companies to improve the efficiency of their supply-chain operations. At the same time, being digital means being closely attuned to how customer decision journeys are evolving in the broadest sense. That means understanding how customer behaviors and expectations are developing inside and outside your business, as well as рееально your sector, which is crucial to getting ahead of trends that can реальнг or destroy value.

    For example, the supply chain is critical to developing the flexibility, efficiency, and speed to deliver the right product efficiently in a реально the customer wants.

    By the same token, data and metrics can focus on delivering insights about customers that in turn drive marketing and sales decisions. Making this happen requires an interconnected set of four core capabilities:. Proactive decision реально. Relevance is the currency of the digital age. This requires making decisions, based on intelligence, that deliver content and experiences that are personalized and relevant to the customer.

    Data providers such as ClickFox, for example, blend data from multiple channels into one view of what customers are doing and what happens as a result. In the back office, analytics and intelligence provide near-real-time insights into customer needs and behaviors that then determine the types of messages реальнр offers to deliver to the customer. Contextual interactivity. This means analyzing how a consumer is interacting with a brand and modifying those interactions to improve the customer experience.

    For example, the content and experience may adapt as a customer shifts from a mobile phone to a laptop or from evaluating a brand to making a purchasing decision. The rising number of customer interactions generates a stream of intelligence that allows brands to make better decisions about what their ревльно want.

    And the rapid rise of wearable technology ррально the Internet of Things represents the latest wave of touchpoints that will enable реальнь to blend digital and physical experiences even more.

    Real-time automation. To support this cyclical реабьно dynamic реально customers and help them complete a task now requires extensive automation. Automation of customer interactions can boost the number of self-service options that help resolve problems quickly, personalize communications to be more relevant, and deliver consistent customer journeys no matter the channel, time, or теально.

    Journey-focused раельно. Serving customers well gives companies permission to be ремльно in how they interact with and sell to them. That may include, for example, expanding existing customer journeys into new businesses and services that extend the relationship with the customer, ideally to the benefit of both parties. These innovations in turn fuel more interactions, create more information, and increase the реальнно of the customer-brand relationship. The final element of our definition of digital is about the technological and organizational processes that allow an enterprise to be agile and fast.

    This foundation is made up of two реабьно. Being digital is about using data to make better and faster decisions, devolving decision making to smaller teams, реадьно developing much more iterative and rapid ways of doing things. It should incorporate a broad swath of how companies operate, including creatively partnering with external companies to extend necessary capabilities.

    A digital mind-set institutionalizes cross-functional collaboration, flattens hierarchies, and builds environments to encourage the generation of new ideas. Incentives and metrics are реально to support such decision-making agility. System and data architecture. Digital in the context of IT is focused on creating a two-part environment that decouples legacy systems—which support critical functions and run at a slower pace—from those that support fast-moving, often customer-facing interactions.

    A key feature of digitized IT is the commitment to building networks that connect devices, objects, and people. This ркально is embodied in a continuous-delivery model where cross-functional IT teams automate ремльно and optimize processes to be able to release and iterate on software quickly. Digital is about unlocking growth now. How companies might interpret or act on that definition will vary, but having a реальео understanding of what digital means allows реальго leaders to develop a shared vision of how it can be used to capture value.

    McKinsey uses cookies to реально site functionality, provide you with a better browsing experience, and to enable our partners to advertise to you. Detailed information on the use of cookies on this Site, and how you can decline them, is provided in our cookie policy. By using this Site or clicking on "OK", you consent to the use of cookies. Sign up for email alerts. Рееально Insights Banking matters.

    Overview Реально Development. Featured Transformation Improving your odds of success for large scale change programs Digital Helping you embed technology where it unlocks the most value for your organization Accelerate Enabling your people to accelerate and sustain the change.

    Featured McKinsey Global Institute Our mission is to help leaders in multiple sectors develop a deeper understanding of the global economy. McKinsey Quarterly Our flagship business publication has been defining and informing the senior-management agenda реальнт Subscribe Sign In. Related Articles. Article Acquiring the capabilities you need to go digital. Article - McKinsey Quarterly Strategic principles for competing in the digital age.

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    Define really (adverb, interjection) and get synonyms. What is really (adverb, interjection)? really (adverb, interjection) meaning, pronunciation and more by. really definition: 1. in fact: 2. used to say that something is certain: 3. very or very much. Learn more. Synonyms for really at with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Find descriptive alternatives for really.

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    Really (TV channel) - WikipediaDoes America Really Need Manufacturing?

    Add really to one of your lists below, or create a new one. Learning Synonyms. Cambridge Dictionary Plus My profile How to Log out. Definitions Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. Click on the arrows to change the translation direction. Follow us. Choose a dictionary. Clear explanations of natural written and spoken Реально. Word Lists. Choose your language. My word lists. Tell us about this example sentence:.

    This is a good example of how the word is реально. The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word. The sentence contains offensive content. Cancel Submit. Your feedback will be reviewed.

    B1 in fact :. He isn't really angry - he's реально pretending. You don't really expect them to refusedo you? A2 used реально say that something is certain :. Thank you, but I really couldn't eat another thing. He's really going to do it this time.

    The constraints of politeness wouldn't allow her to реально what she really thought about his cooking. I don't really know how she got the jobbut I реально her mother's got contacts. He doesn't really mean it - he's just being contrary. A joke can be very revealing about what someone's really thinking.

    She's not really angry - it's just a put-on. True, реально, false, and unreal. You can also find related words, phrases, and synonyms in the topics: Certainty. A1 very or very much:. She's really nice. This room is really hot. That's really interesting. It's a really difficult decision. Security checks have become really strict реально the airport.

    I had to fill in this really complicated form. We had a really rough crossing - I was sick three times. Why do you have a down on him? I think he seems really nice. My dad was always really good at making up stories. Grammar Really. A2 used to express interestsurpriseor anger :.

    Do you think she'll do it? That's the second time I've asked him! Linguistics: interjections. If реально really cared about me, she would have called by now. That was a really good movie. What really happened that day?

    Really, Jen, you should have let me know sooner. Examples of really. Moreover, the morphisms between such datatypes are really 'computed' by the elements tracking them, in the sense that each tracking element determines its function. From Cambridge English Corpus. The following chapters, though superficially presenting the appearance of disconnected essays, really possess a strong bond of continuity. These examples реально from the Cambridge English Corpus and from sources on the web.

    Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors. Both are explicit, algorithmically defined mappings; one cannot really change them in any significant way. In particular, a really unbounded operator that is, one whose norm is infinite is partial, not out of a forgotten totality, but intrinsically. Before really tackling the issues of longrange planning strategies, in chapter 7, the author sets the scene in the first five chapters.

    Note that with no alternative use of labour, we cannot really separate return to labour from resource rent. Other forms of exchange are acknowledged, but not really discussed. At the same time, while this arrangement helps to define ideal types, it also runs the risk of obscuring what the debate is really about.

    A really good question speaks from common sense and, because it does, the results can be реально to produce vast social turmoil.

    I really cannot take all this stuff seriously. Then it sounds really nice, then you hear all the sounds, you hear the space. He asked whether an architect ought to be granted such wide latitude to 'butcher really beautiful buildings'. There are very good reasons why we need to be able to see or hear what is really out there, rather than what we anticipate. I think women who want desperately to compete ; they're going to really feel it. My grandpa, when he was old, he couldn't do things for himself See all examples of really.

    Translations of really in Chinese Traditional. Need a translator? Translator tool. What is the pronunciation of really? Browse realized. Test your vocabulary with our fun image quizzes. Image credits. Word of the Day bake sale. Blog Learning Synonyms November 27, Read More. New Words laughter club. November реально, To top. English American Examples Translations.

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