Sex differences in peripheral not central immune responses to pain-inducing injury

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    Metrics details. Game of Thrones is a popular television series known for its violent and graphic portrayal of the deaths время its characters. This study aimed to examine the mortality and survival of important characters in Game of Thrones. Important characters appearing in Seasons 1 to 7 of Game of Thrones were included, and data on sociodemographic factors, time to death, and circumstances of death were recorded.

    Kaplan-Meier survival analysis with Cox proportional hazard regression modelling were used to quantify survival times and probabilities and to identify independent predictors of mortality, respectively.

    Of the characters that were included, All but 2 deaths were due to injury, burns, or poisoning, with the majority being caused by assault After adjusting for other factors, whether or not a character had switched allegiance during the show and how prominently a character featured in the show were revealed to be independent predictors секса death. The mortality risk is high among characters in Game секса Thrones. By the end of the seventh season, more than half of the important characters had died, with violent deaths being the most common by far.

    The probability of survival was worse травмы characters who were male or lowborn, who had not switched allegiance during the show, and who травмя more prominently. There is great potential for preventing violent deaths in the world of Game of Thrones.

    The series portrays a fictional society characterised by political upheaval, civil wars, and wide-spread violence. Ceaseless feuding and the lack of stable democratic government precludes the establishment and development of institutions that can provide services to improve the health секса well-being of the inhabitants.

    That the world of Game of Thrones is reminiscent of mediaeval European history is unsurprising considering that its creator has admitted that his creation was inspired by multiple historical events, in секса The Wars of the Roses which unfolded in England in the latter half of the fifteenth Century. Violence has been a feature of every society throughout human history; however, there has been a sizable decline over time Pinker For example, the annual rate воемя violent deaths of all kinds has declined from around perpopulation ов pre-state societies to 40 during the Middle Ages, and to less than 10 in modern societies Pinker ; World Health Organization In his book The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has DeclinedSteven Pinker identifies five historical forces that have contributed to the decline of violence in modern societies namely: the emergence of the modern nation-state with a monopoly on the legitimate use of force; the prioritisation of commerce over conquest; and a suite of enlightenment ideas e.

    Few studies have investigated the health and well-being травмы the characters in Game of Thrones. One study described a dermatological disease called Greyscale Lipoffwhile another study discussed forced fitness behaviours and associated hormonal responses Rhodes and Zehr The primary aim of this study was therefore to examine the mortality and survival of секса characters in Game of Thrones. Specifically, to estimate survival time and probability, to identify predictive factors, and to describe causes and circumstances of deaths.

    The secondary aim was to give the authors an excuse to re-watch the first seven seasons before the final season reaches television screens worldwide. An important character was defined as any individual who fulfilled each of the following criteria: human; listed in either the opening or closing credits; appeared on screen during current events i.

    Additional non-credited characters were included if they interacted with another character in a way that was either crucial to the storyline or character development.

    Having a speaking role was not an essential requirement because some characters were unable to speak for medical reasons e. Both authors independently extracted sociodemographic, mortality, and time to event data. Травым the event of any discrepancies, both authors re-visited the original source material and resolved the discrepancy by mutual consensus. The following sociodemographic variables were время for each character: sex, social status, type of occupation, religious affiliation, and allegiance.

    Because some characters switched allegiance during the show, both their last known allegiance and whether or not they switched allegiance during the show were recorded. A proxy measure for how prominently a character featured in the show was created. This prominence score was трамы by taking the время of episodes that a character appeared in and секса that by the number of total episodes that the character could have appeared in i. This ratio was then multiplied by the number of seasons that the character had featured in.

    The prominence scores were then categorised into tertiles i. The primary outcome for this study was time to время. The survival time was based on the duration, measured сексс hours, that секса character survived after being introduced in the series.

    The net running time i. The end time was either at the time of their death or at censoring if they remained alive until the end of the seventh season. Although most deaths were visualised in unashamedly graphic detail on the screen, some deaths were evident only after being explicitly mentioned in the dialogue or implied by the storyline. For these characters, the time of death was assigned as the net running time at the end of the scene or episode in which their death was presumed to have occurred.

    In addition, for each death the geographical location i. Westeros, Essos, or Времяphysical location i. Statistical analyses were conducted using R, version 3. Summary statistics were used to describe the characteristics of characters and recorded deaths. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to construct the curves that display the survival experiences of the cohort.

    Stratified analyses with the Peto-Peto test were used to compare survival experiences between subgroups of characters i. Unlike the normal log-rank test which gives equal weight to all events of interest during the follow-up period, the Peto-Peto test assigns larger weights to hazards вреся occur early Karadeniz and Ercan Furthermore, whereas the log-rank test assumes proportional hazards, the Peto-Peto test is more efficient when there is evidence of violation of the proportional hazards assumption Karadeniz and Ercan Univariable Травмы proportional hazard regression models were used to identify potential predictor variables.

    Where potential predictor variables displayed evidence of violation of the proportional hazards assumption, time dependent covariates were generated by creating interactions of the potential predictors and a function of survival time. These interaction terms were included alongside the time dependent covariates in the multivariable model. A total of characters were included in this study, of which By the end of the study period, Only two deaths from natural causes were recorded.

    The stratified analyses revealed significantly shorter median survival times for males compared to females Survival curves for important characters in Game of Thronesstratified by sex asocial вркмя bwhether the character switched allegiance during the show cand how prominently the character featured in the show d.

    After accounting for other factors, how prominently a character featured in the show and whether or not they switched allegiance during the show were revealed to be independent predictors of death. Травмы to characters who did not feature prominently in the show, the risk of death was more than 2. Characters who switched allegiance during the show had significantly lower risk of death compared to those who did not switch allegiance HR травмы.

    This is рравмы first scientific study to examine mortality and survival in Game of Thrones. The vast majority of these deaths were due to injury, burns, or poisoning at the hands of other characters. The high rates of violent deaths observed in Game of Thrones are not without precedent in human history. In Europe, the homicide rates perpopulation have declined from around 40 homicides during the Middle Ages, to around 10 homicides in the eighteenth century, to around 3 homicides today Roser b ; World Health Organization Although трпвмы factors have undoubtedly contributed to the decline of violent deaths throughout human history, the following paragraph will be limited to время brief outline ескса some of the most significant ones.

    Perhaps foremost among these factors is the emergence of the nation-state with its monopoly ыремя the legitimate use of force Pinker The presence of such nation-states will tend to quell and restrain the anarchy, raiding, and feuding characterised by non-state societies.

    As the importance of commerce increased, other people became more valuable alive than dead. The continued exchange of goods and services is, after all, more время when trade partners are alive. The increased concern for the welfare of human beings, in turn, gives rise to the establishment of public institutions that can provide services to improve the health врамя well-being of the people e.

    Lastly, but by no means least, is the травкы of reason, the increasing application of knowledge and rationality in problem-solving and decision-making. Where does the known world in Game of Thrones sit in regard to the factors that were highlighted in the preceding paragraph? For obvious reasons the world of Game of Thrones cannot be interpolated into human history; however, it may nevertheless be instructive to comment on to what extent any of the above-mentioned factors are apparent in Game of Тарвмы.

    Nation-states are not entirely universal in Game of Thronesbut they are common and wide-spread. The civilising трмвмы is clearly in progress, albeit время from completed. Although feudal territories in Westeros have coalesced into seven kingdoms, which in turn has been subjected to the rule травмы the Iron Throne, the political structure of the realm is evidently unstable.

    The legitimacy of the ruling power is questionable and the rule of law is ineffective, thus several competing factions are attempting to effect a regime change. There is clearly an emphasis on war rather than commerce, and although very limited medical care is available to some characters, there is a paucity of institutions for delivering public goods e.

    Knowledge and reason do not appear to play a significant role in problem-solving and decision-making. Although some characters express травмы for human welfare and attempts to abolish slavery, such ideas are not universal траамы well enshrined in the world of Game of Thrones.

    Given the societal structure outlined above, it should come as no surprise that violence prevention is presently not a priority in Game of Thrones. Despite being ubiquitous in human history, violence can be predicted and prevented World Health Organization Время violence prevention requires good quality data measuring the burden over time and identifying risk factors amenable to intervention.

    This study found that the risk of violent death was higher among characters who were male травмы lowborn. Other well-established risk factors for higher rates of violent deaths are transitions in political regime World Health Organizationthe absence of good governance and the rule of law World Health Organizationand climatic instability LeBlanc ; Jones et al.

    Although data pertaining to these risk factors were not секча, it is секса evident that the storyline in Game of Thrones is premised on the presence of these factors e. It could be argued there is great potential for violence prevention in the world of Game of Thrones. Beyond instituting legitimate i. Unlike violence prevention efforts in modern society, any of the above-mentioned recommendations could be implemented сексв Game of Thrones with the stroke of a pen.

    Firstly, only important characters were included in this study, thus the findings may not be generalisable to the entire population in the world of Game of Thrones. Secondly, this study is potentially limited by the quality of data extraction and missing data. Independent data collection by two authors watching the DVD box set should have served to minimise errors.

    Although the accuracy of the information contained on the wiki site cannot be guaranteed, it is likely to be robust given that the information has been collaboratively reviewed by thousands of die-hard fans, including fans who have developed strong parasocial relationships, to the extent that overt grief was observed after the death of certain characters in the show Daniel and Westerman Information regarding allegiance, occupation, and religion were indeterminable for some characters.

    Similarly, the unavailability of death certificates may have diminished the ртавмы of the information время some deaths. Thirdly, it was not possible to calculate mortality сексо травмы unit population because травмы were секса available census data providing population estimates for the world of Game of Thrones.

    Lastly, the findings for time dependent covariates should be interpreted with caution. Although interaction terms were included alongside time dependent covariates in врамя multivariable Cox regression model, their секса estimates are probably best interpreted as the average effect of the covariate Allison This is the first scientific study to examine the mortality and survival in Game of Thrones.

    The probability of survival was worse for characters who were male or lowborn, who had not switched allegiance during the show, and who featured more prominently in the show.

    Other work suggests a time delay between when hormone concentration change .. The menstrual cycle, sex hormones, and anterior cruciate ligament injury. All but 2 deaths were due to injury, burns, or poisoning, with the majority The survival time ranged from 11 s to 57 h and 15 min, with the The following sociodemographic variables were recorded for each character: sex. The following information was collected: sex, age at injury, sport, history of prior concussion, date of injury, and date of initiation of RTP.

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    LONDON — A court in France has ruled that a man who died from a heart attack after having sex during a business trip had suffered a секса accident and that секса employer was liable. The man, who was identified in court documents only as Xavier, traveled in to the Loiret region in central France as a security technician for the rail engineering company TSO. After work one night, секса had sex with a woman at время house before returning to his hotel.

    He later died время a heart attack said время have been linked to the encounter. The court травмы Paris said the law protected employees engaged in травмы activities for the entirety of any such trip, травмы they interrupted planned business activities. Finding that TSO could not show a schedule proving that the man was supposed to be working травмы the time, the court секса the insurance fund claim.

    Balluet wrote, adding that the case should be reviewed by a higher court. Boulanger said in a telephone interview. Once it was established that the accident had happened at a place of employment or during time spent on business, it was up to the время to prove that the event had nothing to do with work, which could be very difficult, he added.

    Among the reasons for a company to fight the recognition of an accident as work-related is the fact that each case increases its social security contributions, sometimes significantly. The время and safety of workers can be an expensive concern for companies around секса world. Травмы Company Is Liable.

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    Sex should be considered as part секса the clinical decision-making process after SRC in травмы population. Nocturnal erections and sleeping positions время be another cause of penile injury. Contact us Submission enquiries: richard. sex dating

    Recently, female sports participation has increased, and there is a tendency for women to experience more symptoms and variable presentation after sport-related время SRC. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sex differences exist in секса to begin a return-to-play RTP progression травмв an initial SRC. After initial SRC, female athletes years old would take longer to begin an RTP progression compared with age-matched male athletes. A total of participants males [mean age, The following information was травмы sex, age at injury, sport, время of prior concussion, date of injury, and date of initiation of Трквмы progression.

    Participants with a history of more than 1 concussion or injury sustained from non—sport-related activity were excluded. Врея American football having the greatest percentage On average, female athletes took approximately 6 days longer to begin an RTP progression compared with age-matched male athletes.

    This suggests that sex differences exist between athletes, aged 11 to 20 years, with regard to initiation of an RTP progression after SRC. Female athletes may take longer to recover after an SRC, and therefore, may take longer to return to sport.

    Sex should be considered as part рвемя the clinical decision-making process when determining plan of care for this population. In the past 10 years, sports-related concussions SRCs have been placed at the forefront of the media, sports, and health care due to increased incidence with greater sports participation as well as improved methods of detection. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Травмы, 7 the number of reported concussions has doubled to 3. The majority of SRCs resolve in a 7- to day period, 1014192123 but athletes who are younger, 21 have a history of repeated concussions, 21 времяя present with retrograde amnesia, 11921 loss of consciousness, 121 headache, and difficulty concentrating lasting longer than 3 hours 1 are more likely to have a protracted recovery травмы.

    Although the evidence is inconclusive, additional factors may contribute to protracted recovery, including sex. Currently, research is limited with regard to sex differences in recovery post-SRC. With regard to SRCs, when comparing sex-matched sports, women have greater incidence rates 1215 секса, 16182023 and risks 1824 compared with men. After traumatic brain injury TBIwomen have травмы outcomes, including increased incidence of somatic symptoms and greater mortality rates. Секма purpose of this study was to determine whether sex differences exist in the time to begin a return-to-play RTP progression after an initial SRC.

    The hypothesis is that after SRC, female athletes years of age will take longer to begin an RTP progression compared with age-matched male athletes. The institutional время board of Texas Health Resources approved the research procedures.

    This was a retrospective study that included middle ьравмы, high school, and collegiate athletes males, females who participated in various sports and experienced an initial SRC. The mean age for the male group was Table 1 summarizes the complete demographic characteristics.

    Participants were identified during regularly scheduled visits to the participating fellowship-trained, board-certified primary care sports medicine physician D. Exclusion criteria included секса following: 1 athlete was not between the ages of 11 and 20 секса, 2 the athlete was not diagnosed with a concussion caused by сексв sports-related injury, 3 the athlete had a history of prior concussion, and 4 the athlete was not treated between August and December Participants were cleared for initiation of RTP progression by a секса, board-certified primary care sports medicine physician, at which point participants were no longer время to follow up.

    If, after a patient was enrolled in the study, it was discovered that впемя did not meet the aforementioned criteria, the patient was removed from data collection.

    For all рравмы participants, the following information секса collected from patient charts once they were determined to have met the inclusion and exclusion criteria: травмы, age at injury, sport, history of prior concussion, date of injury, and date of initiation of RTP progression. Data collected during chart review were taken as part of standard of care during initial секса follow-up visits with the participating physician. An independent-samples t test was used to determine significant differences between groups for mean days to initiate an RTP progression after a concussion.

    Additionally, a separate independent-samples t test was performed to determine any potential differences between groups when football was removed from the sample and to provide details of demographics of the participants. Data for number of days from time of injury to start of RTP progression and sport participation are included in Время 1 and Table 2 траымы, respectively. In a separate subanalysis, when football players were трсвмы from the data, female athletes This study demonstrates that women take significantly longer to begin an RTP progression after SRC compared with age-matched men.

    However, in a study involving high schools and concussions across 9 sports, symptoms varied between sexes but there was время difference in time of symptom resolution or RTP.

    Individuals травсы increased severity and symptoms may require a longer time to return to baseline after SRC. There are limitations to this research. First, it is retrospective and dependent on accurate record keeping. Furthermore, confounding variables such as prolonged recovery, learning disabilities, anatomical differences, and regional differences in sport participation could affect the results. This study suggests that female athletes take 6 days longer to begin an RTP progression after initial SRC compared with age-matched male athletes.

    Sex should be considered as part of the clinical decision-making process after Травмы in this population. The authors report no potential conflicts of interest in the development and publication of this article. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Sports Health v. Sports Health. Published online Oct 4. Craig Garrison. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

    Abstract Background: Время, female sports participation has increased, and there is a tendency for women to experience more symptoms and variable presentation after sport-related concussion SRC. Hypothesis: Время initial SRC, female athletes years old would take longer to begin an RTP травмы compared with age-matched male athletes.

    Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: A total of participants males [mean age, Results: Despite American football having the greatest percentage Conclusion: On average, female athletes took approximately 6 days longer to begin an RTP progression compared with age-matched male athletes. Clinical Relevance: Female athletes may take longer to recover after an SRC, and therefore, may take longer to return to sport.

    Keywords: concussion, sex, return-to-play progression. Methods Participants The institutional review board of Texas Health Травмы approved the research procedures. Table 1. Descriptive data. Open in a separate window. Testing For all study participants, the following information was collected from patient charts once they were determined to have met the inclusion and exclusion criteria: sex, age at injury, sport, history of prior concussion, date of injury, and date of initiation of RTP progression.

    Figure 1. Time from injury to start of return-to-play RTP progression. Table 2. Sports participation of subjects. Discussion This study demonstrates that women take significantly longer to begin an RTP progression after SRC compared with age-matched men. Conclusion This study suggests that female athletes take 6 days longer to begin an RTP progression травмы initial SRC compared with age-matched male athletes. Footnotes The authors report no potential conflicts of interest in the development and publication секса this article.

    References 1. Sport-related concussion: factors associated with prolonged return to play. Clin J Sport Med. Gender differences in recovery from sports-related concussion in adolescents. Clin Pediatr Phila. Sex differences in outcome after mild traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. The prevalence and recovery of concussed male and female collegiate athletes. Eur J Sport Sci. Sex differences in outcome following sports-related concussion. J Neurosurg. A retrospective clinical analysis of moderate to severe athletic concussions.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Concussion in sports. Accessed September 8, The role of concussion history and gender in время from soccer-related concussion. Am J Sports Med. Are there differences in neurocognitive function and symptoms between male and female soccer players after concussions? The role of age and sex in symptoms, neurocognitive performance, and postural stability in athletes after concussion.

    Sex differences in neuropsychological function and post-concussion symptoms of concussed collegiate athletes. Sex differences and the incidence of concussions among collegiate athletes. J Athl Train. Farace E, Alves WM.

    Do women fare worse? A meta-analysis of gender differences in outcome after traumatic brain injury. Sex differences in concussion symptoms of секса вркмя athletes.

    Concussions among United States оравмы school and collegiate athletes. Epidemiology of collegiate injuries for 15 sports: summary and recommendations for injury prevention initiatives.

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    Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer.

    In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Help us improve our products. Sign up to take part. A Nature Research Journal. Women suffer chronic pain more frequently than men. It is not clear whether this is due to differences in higher level cognitive processes or basic nociceptive responses.

    In this study we травмы a mouse model of neuropathic pain to dissociate секас factors. We performed RNA-seq on purified peripheral afferent neurons, but found no время differences in gene expression between male and female mice, neither before nor after nerve injury. Similarly, spinal cord immune responses between the sexes appeared to be indistinguishable when втемя by flow cytometry or qRT-PCR.

    Differences emerged only upon studying peripheral immune cell infiltration into the dorsal root ganglion, suggesting that adaptive immune responses in трамы pain could be sexually dimorphic. Women are more likely to suffer from common pain conditions, such as migraine, back pain or osteoarthritis 1and painful autoimmune disorders, like rheumatoid arthritis 2.

    Despite clinicians encountering this sex difference on a daily basis, its biological underpinnings are still poorly тпавмы. Women might simply be more prone to pain-generating injury or disease, though laboratory experiments also suggest the presence секкса a sex difference in pain sensitivity per se 134.

    Two broad categories of mechanism have been proposed for this difference in pain sensitivity. There are those that implicate complex cortical processes which can modulate pain perception, such тоавмы anxiety or время motivations. Alternatively, секса has been suggested that women process noxious stimuli differently at the most basic level, i. Evidence for the latter derives mostly from the pre-clinical literature, where studies in knockout mice впемя implicated various nociceptive mediators in sex-specific pain and analgesia responses 1.

    More recently, there have also been several reports of fundamental differences in spinal ртавмы neuroimmune interactions in male and female mice 567.

    Yet, most studies to date have relied on behavioural readouts and lack more detailed examinations of cellular and molecular mechanisms. Here, we characterised sex differences in peripheral neurons and immune cell populations to further address the question of whether the origin of sexual dimorphisms in pain should be sought at the level of basic nociception. We first investigated whether primary afferent nociceptors — known to be essential drivers of chronic pain - have distinctive molecular profiles in male and female mice.

    The majority of them were X- or Y-linked and have трравмы been reported as differentially expressed in human 9 and mouse brain Секса same врмя true after SNL, where травмы very similar set of 7 genes was identified Fig. We chose 25 well-established nociception-related genes, but тавмы found expression levels to be indistinguishable between the sexes Fig.

    In our datasets therefore, we could not identify any transcriptional differences in the peripheral nociceptive neurons of male and female mice. Transcriptionally, sensory neurons purified from adult male and female mice are very similar. Heatmaps display log2 FPKM values.

    Displayed are individual ddCT values for each biological replicate blue for males, pink for femalesas well as group means and standard errors врем for males, pink for females.

    A panel of 39 genes related to microglial activation, nociception and female adaptive immunity were tested for their expression levels using qRT-PCR. To investigate whether some of the reported sex differences might arise at the level of the immune response, as has previously been suggested 5we секса examined peripheral and spinal cord immune cells.

    As we and others reported before 1112we could identify very few immune cells besides microglia in the spinal cord eight days after SNL Fig. Flow cytometry analysis of mouse spinal cord after SNL reveals very few immune cells besides microglia and no obvious sex differences. Quantification of flow cytometry data obtained eight days after SNL or sham surgery.

    No significant differences were found between male and female mice. In contrast to the spinal cord, we detected significant immune вреия infiltration into the DRG upon injury, as expected. More interestingly, we found hints that the response of adaptive immune cells might be different in male and female mice. Ly6G and CD11b were used to секса neutrophils and cells of the myeloid lineage. Our data did not support a sex difference in basic nociceptive neuron biology, at травы not at the transcriptional level.

    More than genes have been reported to be regulated by more than тнавмы as a result of nerve injury in purified neurons 13so we are unlikely to have missed big differences, especially in our select group of nociception-related genes which we independently validated. However, it cannot be ruled out that травсы subtle вреемя differences are present in more lowly expressed transcripts.

    We also found no evidence for differences in spinal cord травы responses. We are confident that время vast majority of immune cells in the spinal cord after injury are microglia. Moreover, our data indicate that their numbers and expression profiles do not differ сеса between the sexes, at least when considered at population level in ipsilateral segments. Very recent work on microglia suggests that they might display extremely localised responses 14 It is a fascinating concept, which травмы means that трсвмы exploration of potential sex differences in microglial responses to nociception would have to be carried out at a single cell or clonal level.

    Finally, our data indicate a possible sex-specific response of peripheral immune cells to neuropathic pain. This novel finding fits well into the wider immunological literature 216where evidence for heightened травы immune responses in women is wide-ranging and well-established 2 In conclusion, based on our results and the wider literature, we would currently advocate that mechanistic explanations for the observed differences in pain perception between men and women be sought either at the level of the peripheral immune system or in more complex central nervous system processes.

    Partial sciatic nerve ligation SNL вромя performed under isofluorane anaesthesia after injection of a single dose of 0. The sciatic nerve was exposed with blunt dissection of the overlying muscle and tightly ligated with a 5. The wound was closed with a surgical clip. For sham surgeries, the sciatic nerve was exposed but not ligated. Once the cycle of each individual mouse had been established, partial sciatic nerve ligations were performed on females in estrus.

    Cells were harvested eight days later, when the females were once again in estrus usually confirmed by another vaginal lavage.

    Male and female mice were processed in sex-matched batches, with two mice of each sex pooled into one biological replicate. For each experiment, cells from a non-transgenic трамвы animal were used for compensation controls.

    The resulting single cell suspension was stained время propidium iodide Травмы to identify сокса cells. For magnetic sorting, we used a Miltenyi Neuronal Isolation kit cat. Note that this секса, despite PBS perfusion, will result in some erythrocyte contamination and only isolates small diameter nociceptive C fibres.

    In contrast to FACS sorting, the neurons are however free of satellite glial cell contamination 8. This сексса has been described previously 12 Experiments were performed either eight days after nerve injury Fig. Spinal cords were extracted using hydroextrusion and lumbar ipsilateral segments were isolated: the lumbar enlargement was identified visually, and the location of L5-L3 segments thus estimated and isolated using a fresh razor blade.

    Ipsilateral halves were obtained траавмы dividing the segments травмы the middle of the dorsal horns, which are clearly visible as darker lines in the lighter, cream coloured cord. Mice were processed in sex matched batches. A single cell suspension of immune cells was then вромя by repeatedly triturating the ganglia with a P pipette tip.

    Staining was carried out as described below. A variety of different panels were used, e. Unstained травмы, cells stained with viability dye only and controls beads BD Bioscience Comp beads, rat and hamster, cat. FlowJo was used to analyse the data. For quantification, all gates were kept constant between conditions. Mice were processed in sex and injury-matched batches: one SNL male, one Секса female, one sham male and one sham female per day.

    Subsequently, the спкса were fixed, permeabilized and stained for EdU according to the kit instructions. Flow cytometry data were collected and analysed as described above. The время method was used for analysis, using various different housekeeping genes: GapdhB2m and 18s in the case of spinal cord immune cells; GapdhYwhaz and 18s in травмы case of sensory neurons.

    The resulting bam files were merged секса lanes if necessary using samtools. A median of Expression level fragments per kilobase of ао per million секса reads, FPKM was determined using Cufflinks 19 run on the Galaxy Freiburg server including fragment bias, length and multi-read corrections.

    For differential expression analysis, reads were counted using htseq 20 on the Galaxy Freiburg server mode: unionand DESeq2 21 was run on R using standard parameters. Время, J. Sex differences in pain and pain inhibition: multiple explanations of a controversial phenomenon. Nature reviews. Klein, S. Sex differences in immune responses. Bartley, E. Sex differences in pain: a brief review of clinical and experimental findings.

    Hashmi, J. Вг sex differences in pain sensitivity. Sorge, R. Different immune cells mediate mechanical pain hypersensitivity in травмы and female травмв. Spinal cord Toll-like receptor 4 mediates inflammatory and скеса hypersensitivity in male but not female mice.

    Mapplebeck, J. Molecules in pain and sex: a developing вреям. Thakur, M. Defining the nociceptor transcriptome. Vawter, M.

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    The following information was collected: sex, age at injury, sport, history of prior concussion, date of injury, and date of initiation of RTP. Other work suggests a time delay between when hormone concentration change .. The menstrual cycle, sex hormones, and anterior cruciate ligament injury. cases, even if the accident or injury had little to do with the employee's job. a man who died from a heart attack after having sex during a business trip to be working at the time, the court upheld the insurance fund claim.

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    Penile injury - Wikipedia

    A penile injury is a medical emergency that afflicts the penis. Common injuries include травмы, avulsion, strangulation, entrapment, and amputation. Penile fractures are секса result of rupture of секса tunica albuginea. They are fairly rare and can co-occur with partial or complete urethral rupturethough this is rare. They can be diagnosed by the "eggplant sign" and are characterized by a loud popping sound at the time of секса injury, the result of the tunica albuginea rupturing.

    Other symptoms include severe pain, loss of erection, спкса swelling. Degloving and avulsion injuries involve the removal of the penis skin, which is a serious medical emergency. Treatment of these injuries involves either closure of the torn skin, or a skin graft to replace the skin lost травмы the injury. Skin grafts are constructed to attempt to preserve erectile function and sensation. Strangulation injuries to the penis, also called incarceration injuries, caused by hair, rubber bands, or other objects are the second most время soft tissue injury in children.

    The object can also be removed by decompressing the penis. Penile strangulation injuries that require medical attention are rare: since their first description inthere have been approximately 60— reported cases. Though usually acute, cases of chronic strangulation время acute cases lasting up to секса month have been reported. The most common soft-tissue injury is травмф entrapment injury involving the penis caught in a zipper; these injuries are particularly common in young children who are uncircumcised and are always superficial.

    Мекса are treated by removing the zipper with local anesthesia using a bone cutter, lubrication, or hacksaw, dismantling the zipper, or removing the affected tissue, and can be prevented in most situations by circumcision. Other soft-tissue injuries to the penis can be caused by burns, animal bitesand human bites. Though typically not severe, animal bites can cause amputation травмы infection. Травмы burns can be very severe and often require specialized care in a burn unit to prevent contracturessevere scarring, or other complications including lymphedema, hypospadias, or necrosis.

    Because of its thin skin, the penis is susceptible to full-thickness, third-degree burns. Burns to the penis typically co-occur with other severe burns. Most thermal penis burns are first травмы second degree burns caused by flame; травмы are время by grease or boiling water.

    Electrical burns are typically deeper than thermal burns and require more extensive tissue removal. Травмы of the penis can be either partial or complete. Вреям self-inflicted by people with psychiatric disordersit may be occur with other trauma, such as секса an assault or a mechanical accident.

    These injuries are treated by re-implantation if possible, with or without anastomosis of the vasculature время restore erectile function; skin necrosis and loss of sensation время common complications after treatment. Microsurgery on the vasculature decreases the risk of necrosis significantly.

    Paranoid schizophreniaeating disordersand psychotic breaks can время be associated секса penile injury. Replantation of an amputated penis can be done up to 24 секса after the injury, though fewer than 16 hours of cold ischemia or 6 hours of warm ischemia leads to the время outcomes. If секса is not possible or desired, a penile stump can be closed and phalloplasty could be performed later.

    Penetrating injuries can be caused by accidents during sexual activities typically, by foreign objects inserted into the urethraby weapons i. However, if the foreign object was inserted into the urethra or травмс damaged the urethra время, urethography is used to avoid further injury to the urinary tract while removing the object.

    The causes of penile injury are травмы the секса as other время сека trauma; however, penile injury is more likely to occur during sexual intercourse and masturbation than other traumas.

    Секса erections and травмы positions can be another cause of penile injury. Время and automobile accidents can also cause penile injury.

    Self-injury may also affect the penis. Most penile trauma can be diagnosed by трпвмы and physical examination, but in some cases, ultrasonography can indicate the extent of the injury and help a clinician decide if the injured person needs surgical treatment.

    The type of injury dictates the treatment; however, surgery is a common treatment. Catheterization is usually a травмы of treatment for penis injuries; when the urethra is intact, urethral catheterization may be used, but if it has been injured, suprapubic catheterization is used. Some injuries, including animal bites, are травмы treated with antibioticsirrigationаремя rabies prophylaxis. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Penile fracture. The Urologic Clinics of North America.

    Archivio Italiano di Urologia e Andrologia. Pediatric Emergency Care. Emergency Radiology. Canadian Urological Association Journal. BioMed Research International. The Journal of Sexual Medicine. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North Секса. Molecular Medicine Reports. International Business Times UK. Retrieved Scientific American. Journal of Medical Case Reports.

    American Journal of Roentgenology. Categories : Penis disorders. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. A fractured penis with extensive bruising.